Refining and selling
of petroleum products
The traditional way to extract offshore reserves
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Introductory part The traditional way to extract offshore reserves is to have a fixed or floating production facility with all the necessary equipment (pumps, separators, water treatment, compressors, processing and storage) located above water. However, in deepwater or remote waters, above-water facilities are expensive and there is no land, which makes extraction in such locations difficult
Mission A subsea production system refers to all equipment and facilities located on or below the seafloor or buried in the seafloor for extracting oil or gas from a field or for injecting fluids into a field below an offshore production site, and includes: production risers, production lines and associated production control systems
Workforce
Filtering
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Production
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Workforce
Filtering
Logistics
Equipment
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Production
costs
Strategy The primary and most important function of a subsea production system is to manage the production and transport of fluids, providing the means to technically and economically produce remote and/or deepwater reserves by placing wellheads and associated mechanical and electrical infrastructure on the seafloor. Production from subsea wells can be tied back to above-water facilities or to the shore. In addition to lower development and production costs (compared to a conventional platform), modular subsea technology can also improve recovery rates by reducing backpressure in wells (e.g., through multiphase pumping or subsea separation)
INVESMENT
ANALYSIS
When it comes to unconventional resources, the key technical factors that contribute to their development are: 1. directional drilling 2. hydraulic fracturing (HF) 3. Thermal EOR processes (TEOR) These technologies are not at all new to the oil and gas industry, but they have been significantly improved over the past few years, both operationally and economically. Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) or CSS (Huff and Puff) process is based on producing steam in single-stage steam generators and injecting it down the wellbore into the target formation at a temperature of about 300 C and a pressure of on average 11 MPa. This pressure is sufficient to cause stratification of the unconsolidated oil sands reservoir, which increases fluid flow. For each individual well, soaking periods are followed by soaking periods and then production periods, i.e., CSS is a three-step process that is performed as follows: (1) high-pressure steam is injected through the vertical well for a period of time (2) the formation is shut in for impregnation (3) the well is put back into production. Typical initial cycle times are as follows: (1) injection: 4-6 weeks; (2) soaking: 4-8 weeks; (3) production: 3-6 months. Typical recovery rates during the CSS process are on the order of about 25-30% of the initial amount of heavy/oil/bitumen in place. Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is a very recently developed process originally designed for development of Canadian oil/bituminous sands. Its implementation requires drilling a pair of horizontal wells: an upper steam injection well and a lower oil production well. They must run parallel and be about five meters apart. Steam is injected into the sands through the upper well to create a steam chamber that expands vertically and horizontally. Heat is transferred from the chamber to the bitumen, reducing its viscosity and allowing it to flow - by gravity - to the production well, where it is pumped along with condensed water to surface facilities for processing. In most cases, the expected recovery of the SAGD process is about 50% of the original amount of heavy/oil/bitumen in place. Our company is a leader in performing work related to subsea production systems. With highly trained professionals and the latest technology, we are evolving with today's trends and taking subsea production system operations to new levels!

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